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|Be on the lookout for 'rootless corn'|
|Written by Peter Thomison|
|Monday, 18 June 2012 08:15|
Rootless corn problems are widespread in parts of Iowa and Illinois. Rootless corn, or "rootless corn syndrome," occurs when there is limited or no nodal root development.
Plants exhibiting rootless corn symptoms are often leaning or lodged. Affected corn plants may only be anchored in the soil by seminal roots or by a single nodal root.
This condition is generally observed in plants from about the three leaf stage to the eight-leaf stage of development.
The problem often becomes evident when corn is subjected to strong winds, which result in plants falling over because there is a limited number or no nodal roots supporting them. The force of strong winds can also break off nodal roots and inhibit establishment of a permanent root system.
Leaning and lodged plants, sometimes referred to as "floppy corn," may also be wilted. When affected plants are examined, the nodal roots appear stubby, blunt and unanchored to the soil.
Rootless corn problems are usually caused by weather-related conditions that coincide with development of the permanent (or nodal) root system and various environmental factors. These include shallow plantings, hot, dry surface soils, compacted soils and loose or cloddy soil conditions.
Excessive rainfall and shallow plantings may cause erosion and soil removal around the crown region that can result in rootless corn.
"High crown syndrome" has been associated with rootless corn problems.
One of the causes of high-crown syndrome is subsidence of the soil due to rainfall after planting, when planting occurs in dry soils fluffed by tillage. If the planting furrow opens as soils dry after planting (this is most common in no-till), coleoptile growth stops and the crown can be set near the seed, essentially placing the seed and seedling above the soil.
The nodal roots, which develop above the seed and comprise the permanent root system of corn, are important in providing the water and the mineral nutrients that the corn plant needs for normal growth and development.
If corn seed is planted 1.5 to 2 inches deep, then the nodal (or crown) roots begin develop at about 3/4 of an inch below the soil surface. However, if seed are planted shallower (1 inch or less), then the nodal roots may form near or at the surface where they are more exposed to fluctuations in soil moisture and temperature.
Nodal root growth is very sensitive to high temperatures, with root growth slowing or stopping at soil temperatures exceeding 86ºF.
When unshaded surface soil temperatures reach the mid-90s or higher, the nodal root growth of shallow planted corn may stop. Plants are forced to rely on the seed root system or limited nodal root growth until more favorable temperatures and moisture conditions allow nodal root growth to resume.
Can rootless corn recover?
Yes. After plants lodge, adequate rainfall will promote crown root development and plants can recover. Cultivation to throw soil around exposed roots may aid the corn's recovery. Of course, this is difficult to do in a no-till situation or when the soil is hard and dry.
Since affected corn is likely to be vulnerable to potential lodging problems at maturity, it should be harvested as soon as grain moisture conditions permit. FG
—From Ohio State University Extension's C.O.R.N Newsletter